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Pyramid With Eye Of Horus

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Pyramid With Eye Of Horus

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What The Pyramid On The Back Of A One Dollar Bill Means Pyramid With Eye Of Horus Bei Ihrer Anfrage ist ein Problem aufgetreten. Pyramid Eye Of Horus online spielen casino. Pinterest is using cookies to help give you the best experience we can. Milk glass tear drop design Book Of Ra Online Gamestar banana bowl, they are adorably small: they are approximately 2 inches tall, or transfer any of the files to a third-party. Toggle Sliding Bar Area. Otherwise known as the Eye of Horus or Thoth these myths all describe a similar story that took place in ancient Egypt, Okc Vs Suns the black land Kemet, named for its rich black fertile soil. These cookies do not store any personal information. Dezember versendet werden, bis zum Pyramid With Eye Of Horus Glückstadt: Augustin. To be recited 4 times: incenseand fire. New York. Compare Utts. It employs various methods to assure the king's well-being. E12 Utt. The text of the spell is Sizzling Hot Rules the same as Utt. See further Aufrere p. The Rockefellers are Worth Trillion D The king, who is described as Roulette Einfache Chancen akh-form is on the move z wis told Casino Kartenspiel look up and to look lively Kann Mit Paypal Nicht Per Lastschrift Bezahlen the imperatives uw31 and spd. Eye of Horus Pyramid Freemason Silver Gold Masonic Ring Item Type: RingsSurface Width: mmMetals Type: Stainless Steel We ship worldwide to Casino Bonus Online Book Ofra. Pearl Online Gmbh assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. Details Preise inkl. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. Informationen zur gesenkten USt. Download this Premium Vector about Hand drawn egyptian hieroglyphics Handy Casino Mit Paypal, and discover more than 10 Million Professional Graphic Resources on Freepik. Privacy Overview. Gerne stehen wir Sat Eins Spiele auch für weitere Auskünfte, welche den Kaffee betreffen, zur Verfügung. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. If this is the case,it is a unique example of the Eye of another god being used as a symbol for a ritual item cf. Osiris is then addressedin a seriesof namesof the form "Dweller in ", the king is described as his seed and is then assuredof a meal like Don't Casino Club 15 Euro Gratis away so long. The imperative hw contrasts with Utt. Faulkner was able to include additional material from the pyramid of Neit but his numbering systemhas recently been revised in places by J. As a result of the actions in this spell, the king is assuredof life. Sizzling Fruit Game meat offered to the deceasedis the representative of the Eye of Horus presented to Osiris.

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Ancient Egyptian Music - Eye of Horus

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ÄA: ÄgyptologischeAbhandlungen. ÄF: Ägyptologisehe Forschungen. AnAe: Analecta Aegyptiaca. AO: Acta Orientalia. Copenhagen, AnOr: Analecta Orientalia.

BdE: Bibliotheque d'Etude. Cairo: Imprimerie de 1'Institut francais d'archeologie orientale. New York. BiOr: Bibliotheca Orientalis. CdE: Chronique d'Egypte.

DE: Discussions in Egyptology. GM: GöttingerMiszellen. Hommagesa Leclant: Hommagesä JeanLeclant.

Clerc and N. Grimal BdE LA: Lexicon der Agyptologie, ed. Helck, E. Otto and W. Westendorf 7 vols, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, Berlin, München.

Or: Orientalia, Nova Series, Roin. PA: Probleme derÄgyptologie. Leiden : Brill. RdE: Revued'Egyptologie.

SA : Studia Aegyptiaca, Budapest. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Zu Ehren W. WestendorfüberreichtvonseinenFreundenund Schülern.

WB: Wörterbuch der ägyptischen Sprache. Yale Egyptological Studies 3. New Haven : Yale University Press. As this is the earliest source material for the Eye, this will hopefully establish,if not the origins of the concept, at least its early usage as a symbol.

The Eye of Horus was one of the most popular and enduring of Egyptian symbols. The rich symbolism, closely linked to that of the other divine eyes, is attested from a wide variety of contexts: a protective amulet, an offering symbol, a feature on coffins and stelae, a measure for grain, a heavenly body or the crown.

There seemsto have been no apparent need to justify these multiple uses with a consistent and unified theological explanation; at least none has been preserved.

The coherence is to be found in the essential qualities of the symbol itself. There have been many attempts to define a "symbol"; but Firth's analysis in particular provides a simple working hypothesis for the study of the Eye: "the essenceof symbolism lies in the recognition of one thing as standing for re-presenting another, the relation between ' them normally being that of concrete to abstract, particular to general".

Firth also discusses the problems of studying a symbol which is a product of an alien culture and thought process, the origins of which are obscured from us.

Indeed, Smith states "of the origins of symbols we 3 can assert nothing", the initial generation of a symbol being an act of imaginative speculation which continues to develop new associations and meanings: "a dynamic process of thought, setting ideas in motion and keeping them in motion".

Firth goes on to state that a symbol can only be interpreted and not solved, suggesting the dangers of merely "translating" a symbol and therefore rendering it redundant.

This kind of reductionism, seen sometimes with interpretations of the Eye of Horus as the moon or the crown, ignores the enigmatic and sacred qualities of a religious symbol.

The transferral of an interpretation of the Eye of Horus from one text to a different context is a dangerousprocess, as the essentialpolyvalence of its it symbolism means can readily support new interpretations - ' Henceforth referred to as the PT.

Egyptianreligiousthought can seeminitially rather alienandcontradictory,a situation which reflects our inability to comprehend their perspective of life, rather than any irrationality in their thinking.

Frankfort's theory of "a multiplicity of approaches"6 has proved especially effective for analysing Egyptian religious thought. The Egyptians seem to have had many different interpretations for a phenomenon eg.

Creative speculation on religious truths meant that there was no place for a fixed dogmatic interpretation.

The outwardly traditional and conservative nature of Egyptian religion may suggest that religious ideas remained relatively but have been ' the case.

Some of the unchanged over the centuries; this would certainly not most enduring royal and divine symbols are established very early on - as we can see from the early dynastic artistic evidence' - but their roles and interpretations developed.

A study of symbols such as the dd pillar or the rnh shows how they can feature in linguistic, ritual and decorative contexts and, moreover, that their original forms are hard to define but suggest a more practical inspiration eg.

Silverman , Anthes p. Baines The discussion has initially focussed on the importance of cosmic or royal concepts, although later works have emphasisedthe more general association of the Eye with power.

The main contributions to this debate will be summarizedbriefly below to place this study in perspective as any work on the Eye of Horus is inevitably building on and reacting to what has gone before.

The scholars discussedbelow have not necessarilyconcentrated on the Eye in the PT specifically; but they have generally suggested that their theories are valid for the earliest evidence.

Junker's early works on the subject proved very influential over the following years. He proposed that there was a prehistoric sky-god who was termed Wr and who provided evidence for a primitive monotheism in Egypt.

This deity was all-seeing and had the sun and moon as 13 eyes. Junker saw Horus as this original "Lichtgott", and the Eye of Horus thus also had a 14 primarily celestial role.

He viewed the myths about the Eye of Horus as a symbolic struggle between light and darkness, namely the waxing and waning of the moon.

Junker's theory was modified over the years, but his interpretation of the Eye remained constant. His methodology was, however, problematic - he used the PT to show that ideas seen in later times were already present in the Old Kingdom; but this involved many assumptionson the Eye's celestial in symbolism the PT basedon later evidence rather than evaluating the texts 's independently.

Junker's theory was supported by Kees, who states: "die Sagen über die beiden Gestirnauge des Hin-vnelsgottes liegen schon in unseren ältesten Quellen, den Pyramidentexten".

He sees the mysterious changes in the moon as a great incentive to imagination, and they were consequently interpreted in mythical form as the Eye of Horus.

A subsequentconnection with the royal insignia led to a "Mythenknituel" which is hard for us to 13 Junker's Wr is discussed in Hornung p.

His ideas on the Eye of Horus are expressedin Junker p. See also Junker ap. Kees assumesthe presenceof a developed myth of the Eye of Horus at an early date and thus collects scattered allusions to the Eye which he believesform a continuous narrative.

This is an unwarranted assumption on the evidence of the PT and is again relying on later interpretations of the Eye for the basic premise of celestial symbolism.

Schott's major work on early Egyptian religion and "myth-formation" follows the argument that there were no myths before early dynastic times, and that there are traces of their development in the PT Accordingly, as illustration of this point, he reconstructs a.

Its development was primarily influenced by historical events, such as the unification, and by the mythologizing of ritual seen in the PT. Jequier considers the solar aspects of the PT in his work on '8 Egyptian religion.

He notes the problems of comparing the PT with Ptolemaic texts and considers that the the significance of the Eye of construction of the texts with word-play also makes assessing Horus harder.

He reachesthe following conclusion: "clans tons ces textes, le caractere solaire de l'oeil d'Horus apparait de toute evidence; il personnifie ou bien 1'astrelui-meme, ou bien le dieu qui l'anime, on encore une emanation divine qui pennet d'envelopper d'autres etres et de leur comununiquerles proprieteesdivines".

Rudnitzky's major work on the Eye of Horus went some way to redressing the ''' balance. He was a pupil of Schott and built on his views concerning myth 17 Schott p.

Papyrus which seems to date at least from the Middle if not earlier 2' Rudnitzky's source material consisted Kingdom,.

Rudnitzky states his aim as follows: "die grundlegende Tatsache der Gleichnissetzung allein zu berücksichtigen, ihr Verhfiltnis zu Symbol und Mythe nicht zu erörtern, vielmehr für ihre Formen voraussetzungslose Bezeichnungen 24 Thus he considered the PT objectively, zu verwenden" not basing his studies on the possibilities of an Eye myth or the origins of the Eye, which he believed lost, but concentrating on its technical use as a symbol which provided a very useful study.

In his conclusions he agrees with Schott's theory linking the Eye with the crown. He goes further to add the idea of an assurance of life after death, provided by the continuation of the kingship.

This was symbolized by the Eye of Horus as a unified expression for a political king functioned for 25 concept, whereby the as a guarantee the well-being of the state.

The proposed associationsof the Eye of Horus with the kingship were continued in the works of Anthes, who made detailed studies of Egyptian theology and the development of myth, the lie assumesfor the PT 26 Anthes' work on the Eye reflects his existence of which.

Anthes recognized the multiple approachesto theological issuesseenin the PT and the flexibility of myth, but he also saw the Eye of Horus as fundamentally connected with the royal ideology, functioning in a complex relationship with the idea of a divine dt body and the uraeus: "the zet-serpent was the Uraeus 22 Schott considered the PT as spells to be read at the funeral of the king in conjunction with the performance of the associatedrituals: see Schott Antlics a where tie also considers the Eye Re Anthes actually an earlier work on the connection between the Eye of Horus, the of and ureaus and the term dt.

His views are summarized in Anthes lb. Support for his arguments included the Eye Horus focus 30 He symbolism of the of as the crown which was the of the gods' conflict.

The proposed references to the Eye of Horus as the moon were summarized by Derchain in his work on lunar symbolism.

He notes the prominence of solar theology, but is suggeststhat the moon also present throughout the PT 31 in more obscure references.

This assumption that the referencesto the moon will be obscure or unclear is problematic, as it lays the way open for rather tenuous interpretations of the Eye of Horus in certain spells which often rely again on the assumption that it steins from a lunar myth.

The celestial interpretations of the Eye were taken a step further by Westendorf in his study of bent representationsof the 32 course of the sun.

He discussesthe pairs of eyes seenon stelae as part of this topic, and the Eye of Horus' celestial origin forms part of this discussion of what is mostly later archaeological evidence.

He considers astronomy as a major inspiration for Egyptian beliefs which were only subsequentlyconnected with the kingship. Westendorf uses the shapeof the Wd3t Eye to propose that an ancient celestial panther goddesswas the original owner he interprets "the Eye".

His panther-goddess theory has Zs Anthes b 88 detailed analysis in Anthes An Griffiths His views are summarized in Westendorf , the entry for the Eye of Horus in the LÄ, which puts the emphasis back on the cosmic aspectsof its symbolism.

The most recent work on the Eye of Horus and celestial symbolism is a study by Rolf Krauss on the astronomy of the PT.

The publication was not available for discussion here, but he apparently posits a connection between the Eye of Horus and the planet Venus.

The association between divine eyes and goddessesseenin later texts is not attestedin the PT, and Troy seems to be using examples from the PT primarily to back up her theories, not studying the Eye of Horus' role in thesetexts objectively.

Assmann's major works on myth have beenthe causeof much revised thinking on myth in the PT due to his assertion that the concept of myth, by his definition requiring certain narrative qualities, was not attested in Egypt before the Middle Kingdom.

This obviously has had repercussions for study of the Eye of Horus, the present work being no exception; but Assmann himself has not published any detailed analysis of the Eye.

His study of the theme of conflict includes a discussion of the Eye of Horus which he seesas primarily "a source of physical and political power and a mythologization of royal strength" Most recently, Roeder has begun to publish the results of his research into the Eye of Horns and the terns shin and b3, only one paper on the Eye in the PT having been available for discussion here, but he promises future works considering later evidence too.

He emphasizesthat the Eye's function in one sphere such as 34 Krauss The textual material should be studied in the smallest possible units and using the Egyptian terms where possible.

He then draws together horizons, such as "the Opening of the Eyes" and "the Opening of the Way", linking ritual acts to other "sense horizons", such as the theme of vanquishing foes in battle.

He concludes that the Eye of Horus can function on many levels, in both cult and sensehorizons. He connects the Eye specifically with various terns for divine power and also notes that it could be part of the formation of new constellations.

He thus continues the current emphasison the Eye of Horus as an expression of power and shows the possibilities for interpretation of specific ritual spells.

Many of the studies of the Eye of Horus are necessarily conditioned by the wider theme of the major work in which they appear, and this has often coloured the interpretations of its symbolism.

The author's viewpoint on the subject of myth in the PT has also beencrucial - many of the older works assumed that the Eye functioned as part of a conflict myth, an assumption that is now a dangerous starting point for analysis due to the discussion initiated by Assmann on the statusof myth.

Another danger is the use of later evidence to give meaning to a passagefrom the PT - the theories relating to celestial interpretations have often used this methodology.

On the other hand, placing the emphasison the kingship often ignores the fact that these are essentially royal texts, and royal concepts will naturally be emphasisedhere, regardless of any other connotations which the Eye of Horus may have had in wider religious thought.

The role of the Eye of Horns in cult is usually interpreted as secondaryto one of the other themes, but necessarilyforms the basis of a study of the Eye alone as in the works of Rudnitzky and Roeder.

As Roeder also points out, the emphasisshould be on the text and achieving objectivity in its study. Firth's study of symbols provides a useful summary of the methodology necessary to study a symbol as objectively as possible: starting with an 39 is operational definition, one must observe what said about a symbol, the contexts where it is used and the effects this produces.

As well as a functional and structural inquiry, the symbol be interests in it appears. The starting point must be the source material.

The PT also occur in the pyramids of Pepi II's queens Neit, Wedjebten and Apouit also at Sagqara , which was a departure from the previous kingly prerogative 42 Later versions appear in the tomb of Aba43 and the mastaba of Sesostris-Ankh The exact dates for the Old Kingdom are a matter of much debate; but an approximate date for these texts is c.

Although the earliest corpus dates from the late Sth Dynasty, the material may well have earlier origins. There is also the possibility that changes in religious thought occurred in this period, reflected in editing processes or alterations in the selections of spells chosen.

At present, the individual pyramids await a detailed analysis, although the work of Osing and, more recently, J.

Allen on the pyramid of Unas is most illuminating in terms of the layout of the spells in relation to their content.

The standard collection of the texts remains that of Sethe, whose system of numbering spells and paragraphs is still followed. Since Sethe'spublication, many new spells have been discovered, requiring additions to his sequencein order to link the different versions of the 4!

The texts of the other kings currently await a definitive publication - see Allen p. His pyramid was also at Sayyara and is published by Jdquier His collection of PT contained new material as well as versions of existing spells.

This has led to problems, such as the discrepency of the systemsof T. Allen, who compiled the extremely useful cross-indices, and Faulkner, who included much new material from Neit and most of Leclant's new additions in his translation.

The best study of the current state of research into the PT is in J. Allen's grammatical study of the verb. Allen's additional numbers and also revises many of Faulkners suggested sequencesof spells.

Although J. Allen's work is most useful for the divisions and sequences of spells, Faulkner's translation remains the standard English version of the PT, and adopting Allen's system could thus create further confusion.

In this work I have generally used Faulkner's numbers but have also indicated Allen's revisions marked with an asterisk - although cumbersome, this seems the most useful approach.

Allen also uses later texts to restore fragmented spells - these have been clearly indicated, and reservations about their validity expressedwhere necessary.

The spells of the PT are for the use of the deceasedking in his afterlife, a provision similar to the other items of tomb equipment that would have been secured in his burial chambers.

Their origins traust surely lie in the royal theology of the Old Kingdom and the beliefs that inspired the construction of the pyramids Kemp seesthen as "a systematizingof - royal court culture" which may have eliminated earlier or localized traditions;49 thus their relationship to any "popular" beliefs is unknown.

The possibility always remains that the Eye of Horus had a wider currency as a symbol which, if known, may make its role in the PT more readily intelligible.

The spells preserved in the PT have been divided into broad genres, such as "dramatic" spells or "magical" spells or s3thw, based largely on the work of Schott.

Some are incantations against dangerous creatures, while others could be termed "hymns" or "liturgies", suggesting a use for worship. These differences will naturally affect the role of the Eye of Horus, and the spell types are distinguished accordingly throughout this work.

Each collection of the PT was unique - some sequencesof spells and their locations are preserved; but each pyramid contains an element of new material, and an 47 Thenewresearch linesby room,walland by Leclanthasfollowedtheusefulpracticeof numbering columnof eachpyramid.

S0 SeeSchott p. It is generally agreed that master copies of the PT spells must have been maintained in a temple library, particularly in view of the reuse of these spells throughout Egyptian history.

These were clearly intended as royal texts, but that does not preclude the use of material from other contexts.

The Eye of Horus thus first appearsto us in the context of ritual and mortuary texts. It features essentially as part of the process of "mythologizing ritual", termed "sakramentale Ausdeutung" by Assmann.

S3The reasonsfor the introduction of mythical images into the ritual texts and presumably cult practice has been suggested as due to the loss of religious 54 significance of old rituals which needed reinterpreting to snake them efficacioUS; but the incorporation of a newly developing royal theology may also be a reason.

It is also possible that the rituals developed accordingly. The basic aim of the process of mythologizing seemsto fit with Whitehead's observation that "the object of symbolism is the enhancement of the importance of what is symbolized"," the enhancement being effected here by the magical to power of words transfigure the deceasedking through the identification of the ritual and its participants with divine counterparts.

This is theme at the heart of the symbolism of the Eye of Horus in the PT and is discussedfurther in the following chapters. The initial task for a study of the Eye of Horus in the PT was to collect all the relevant material and to provide a translation and commentary which reflected the current state of research on the PT.

For many passages there are several possible translations and their different implications need to be evaluated - Goedicke has demonstratedthe problems inherent S' eä.

Sec also Algenmüller p. This makes it possible to analysethe use of the Eye of Horus in specific contexts and also to highlight the contrasts among the different types of spells discussedabove.

It soon becameapparent that material referring to other divine eyes and the eyes of the king would also be very useful as a comparison, and it has therefore been included in Sections J and E respectively.

The Eye of Horus has frequently been studied in isolation, although its role often has close similarities to other referencesto eyes in the PT, and it seemshighly desirable to widen the discussion to include the theme of eye symbolism generally.

Other major topics, such as myth, have also been dealt with in separatechapters to draw together some of the material collected in the different sections.

From this detailed textual analysis, it is hoped that the major characteristicsof the Eye of Horus as a symbol will emerge, in terms of the contexts where it was considered effective, the aims it was hoped to secure and the associationsevoked by its presencein a text.

It has been suggestedin the past that the origins of the Eye are lost to us - certainly the lack of earlier evidence and the virtual impossibility of ever reaching a core explanation for a symbol renders all theories mere supposition.

However, it is hoped that this re-evaluation of the evidence will, with all due reservations, provide food for thought about the idea or belief that generatedthis distinctive motif.

Faulkner was able to include additional material from the pyramid of Neit but his numbering systemhas recently been revised in places by J.

Allen p. The offering lists have been extensively analysed by Barta b col. Utts spells from Pepi II dealing with the restoration of the body Al UTT.

See Cour-Marty for a study of the food and drink in measurements thesespells. A2 UTT. A foreleg. This is for the Ritual Opening the Mouth.

The officiant is the son, in the role of a spell of Horus, and his actions for the deceasedare described.

A property of the Eye of Horus, the hph, is used as the implement for the opening of the mouth. The offering of a foreleg is also significant in this ritual see Bonnet p.

The shape of the foreleg is similar to that of the adze used to open the mouth eg. See further the discussion of this ritual in Chapter 1.

Utts a sequenceof spells for the initial purifications at the start of the offering ritual preservedin Peni II.

A3 UTT. To be recited 4 times: incenseand fire. This was a very popular purification spell - it occurs three times in W. The 17b could presumably to accompany the placing of Dwn- nwy interpreted as Horus or simply ntr "the god" but Gardiner p.

After these assertionsthat the king will go with his ka, is f- WB I, the Eye of Horus is presented as incense. The verb pdpd a prospective salmi has the meaning "anhaften" but Faulkner 97 has "diffuse of perfume " for pd, of which p.

A4 UTT. Take the Eye of Horus which he expandedby meansof its perfume. The pdt. See Chapter 1 - for the phrase Hr im Wsir.

AS UTT. A6 UTT. A7 UTT. The Eye of Horus is sound, you are sound! For the 4O A. For 3gb WB 1,22 has "Wasserfülle, überschwemmen". The determinative suggests sweat, an impurity against which the incense can protect the king, although Mercer b p.

All instances of this verb nhh are discussed in the appendix. The Eye is described as wd3t, intact and sound, and the king is to achieve the same condition through the purifying powers of the incense.

This is emphasised through the association of the king with the Eye which is the symbol of the incense offering.

The adjective w0t is discussed in Chapter A8 UTT. As Faulkner p. A9 UTT. The verb mh. In Utt. It has similar connotations of completeness and soundnessas wd.

A 10 UTT. I have brought it to you tinder your sandals. Your heart shall not be weary possessingit.

A libation and two pellets of natron. This spell is also very popular, occurring four times in W. The presentation of the Eye of Horus may be linked with the two pellets of natron mentioned at the end of the spell.

The reference to sandals could imply that the Eye is to be seen as a form of ancient odour-eater! The later version of the spell in CT 64 has the variant text hwtit't.

The voice hnw seems one of authority - Mercer b p. More significantly, the phrase recalls prt-hrw "invocation offerings" and may well denote the same ritual act.

The offering to this spell varies, presumably according to the requirements of the different ritual situations. The other versions are as follows: W.

I Ttts spells from Unas who omits 33 and Pepi II for the ritual purification before the offering meal.

These include libation 33 and the Opening of the Mouth This is the start of the Type B offering list. All UTT. See Utt. The same form of repetition is used here to assure the king of a good censing.

The verb pdpr w is a participle referring back to hr. Utts these spell also refer to the Opening of the Mouth ritual and a small ritual meal These spells form the Type B offering list See Altenmtiller for a discussion of an offering hymn CT that has replacementtext for some of these spells.

A12 UTT. I have brought it to you so I may place it in your mouth. The "he" in the sjrnw. The offering of ziw could be a form of incense or natron.

WB ,,5has "Weihrauchkörner" and the placing in the mouth suggestsnatron which was chewed for purification cf. A13 UTT. Take them for yourself to your face so they may illuminate your face.

A hats jar of white rnnw stone, the right Eye. A h3tc jar of black mm, stone, the left Eye. It is possible that the Eyes of Horus simply correspond to the colour and number of the offerings here, thus enhancing the comparison between offering and mythical object, but this utterance has also been interpreted in other ways.

For example, Kees p. In the later texts the reference to the eyes is linked with the Night and Day barks and also Shu and Tefnut CT vi One can compare also Utts.

This could well be a referenceto the sun and moon but also the offering jars could be seenas reflecting light onto the face as they are raised.

Barta p. A14 UTT. The htp di nswt formula is used - Barta p. They are both expressionsfor the same basic act of giving but a further connection is hard to ascertain.

The best interpretation for wnm. Rudnitzky 59 p. A15 UTT. Wine, a hats jar of white mnw stone. This offering spell - usesthe phrasing from the Opening of the Mouth ceremony, compare also Utt.

A16 UTT. A dpt cake. The Eye to be tasted could literally denote the cake or refer to the acquisition of power from "tasting" the powerful mythical symbol see Ritner p.

A17 UTT. Kidney suet. Here zhnt. The deceasedis envisagedas seeking the Eye himself. For the offering of zhn seeGardiner b p. A 18 UTT. Open your mouth with it.

As in Utt. It will not be distant from you. Beer, a lint cup of hi3 metal. The term bi3 is the subject of a study by Graefe he discussesthis spell on p.

See further Aufrere p. A20 UTT. Provide yourself with it. Beer, a lint cup of htm material. The offerings are all items of insignia.

A21 UTT. A db3 garment. Faulkner p. WB V, Grimm connects db3 and s i 3t as costume elementsof the pharaoh. A22 UTT. Make yourself know it! A s i 3t gannent.

It is depicted here as a bird carrying the sun disc. In Neit this utteranceis followed by a repetition of Utt. A23 UTT. J svvw.

The text from N. Edel p. A seriesof spells for different kinds of sceptres: A24 UTT. Do not let go of it. This sharesan offering with Utt.

The pronoun s refers to the Eye see Chapter 11 for a - discussion of the water in the Eye. A25 UTT. L in Hr rn3t. A Hrs sceptre and a db3 sceptre.

Hassan p. The former transliteration has the advantage of providing a pun with niw. The repeated referencesto water in these sceptre offering spells are otherwise obscure.

A26 UTT. A nndw-Hrs sceptre. This utterance is placed between Utts. The pronoun f refers to the sceptre and possession of the correct insignia consequently means the king can become a god.

The phrase im. A28 UTT. A sm3 staff. I have taken srn33 as an active participle. The finger of Seth unusually stands for the offering of a sceptre here.

This passagehas been interpreted in several ways: Griffiths 4 p. Altenmüller col. Rudnitzky p. The finger was an enabler in ritual it could be used in the opening of the mouth and this seems a possible interpretation here, recalling the opening of the eyes with the mention of a white or illuminated Eye holt.

A29 UTT. A fine gold mace. I have taken sltclt as passive participle. Compare Utt. For d m Faulkner p.

A30 UTT. A drin sceptre. A w3s sceptre. A forked staff. A pendant. A flail. A crook. This composite spell illustrates some of the other types of offering symbolism which are discussed in Chapter 1.

A31 UTT. Allen's Utt. A fuller version survives in CT vii 61w-y, 62bb-dd. The two eyes of Horns match the dual offering of two bows the offerings are fragmented in Nt.

The unspecified "they" who spoke are most probably the gods. Utts the presentation of the seven sacred oils. This i he resumption of the Type A Offering List.

These spells are also found in CT where all of the accompanying texts refer to the Eye of Horus - clearly editing has Niken place.

The presentation of eye-paint and cloths follows Utts. Sft oil. The relative fonn i. WB IV, ,5 has "jem. Faulkner suggests "suffer" p18 n. A33 UTT.

Nsnm oil. A34 UTT. Tw3wt oil. A35 UTT. First class thaw oil. For h3tt thew and the other sacred oils seeGardiner a p. A36 UTT.

The verb sdin. The Eye of Horus has a double symbolism here as the offering of eye paint and as the object that is painted. This offering of eye-paint is discussed by Troy p.

A37 UTT. A bag of black eye paint. The deceasedis twice referred to as Hr im Wsir - the use of this phrase is discussedby Rudnitzky p. Horus is seen as restoring his Eye by painting it on sdm.

WB iv, has two separateentries for sdm 3 and sdmi. Troy p. Therefore, these two offerings are consecutive functions and not parallel actions.

There is also a change to a plural pronoun in the last line with im. A38 UTT. May Tait awake in peace! May She-who-is-in-Tait awake in peace!

Horus' two cloths, before his face. This spell is located after the presentation of unguentsand is followed in W. The spell is addressedthroughout to a female deity and the initial invocation is to Tait who was the a goddessof weaving and also weaving town - the word is discussed further in Chapter 3 in teens of its use with the Eye of Horus in cloth or garment spells.

The word T3itt possibly denotes "she who is in Tait" and is mentioned in El-Saady p. It also occurs in CT vi, and vi, where the word seems to be an adjective qualifying the Eye.

Deg was a very ancient Delta town. This utterance has special connections with Lower Egypt. Jelinkova p.

Junker, Giza V, and not the same as the temple of Sais, thus in the 3rd Dynasty and in the PT this could be "la representation symbolique des domaines royaux".

Lir wt seemsto be a feminine plural participle - Faulkner p. The determinative in N. I have taken shkrt as an active participle with Wr- as the object - the determinative in N.

See also Sethe d p. They are both clearly functioning in the same way in the mythologizing of the presentation of the offering. The most likely interpretation for ksiw.

The meaning seemsclear anyway. The offering of two cloths could be napkins Faulkner's suggestion, p. Hornung p. W13 i This is also born out by Jequier p.

Utts " the ritual meal in the Type A cofferinelist. A39 UTT. An offering table. To be recited: he has gone forth bearing the Eye of Horus.

Give invocation offerings. The s refers to the offering table envisaged as the Eye of Horus. A40 UTT. A41 UTT. A42 UTT. Be satisfied with it. SeeGardiner b p.

A43 UTT. This spell ends the introductory rituals of the Type A offering list. The object of the imperative is shm the pronoun s which refers to the Eye of Horus mentionedin the previous spell.

There is a pun betweenthe two imperativesshin and hms. A44 UTT. Unite it to your mouth. I morning meal. A45 UTT. Protect lest he tramples it. A twt loaf.

The imperative hw contrasts with Utt. A46 UTT. A rth loaf. Seth is the subject of itht. This is a stock phrase used with several offerings Utts. A47 UTT.

Little is that which Seth has eaten of it. Ajar of strong ale. I have taken Welsas an adjective following Faulkner p. This utterance has been interpreted in a variety of ways, the problem being the lack of a feminine ending on n's.

For example, Helck p. Eating wnm the Eye is discussed in Chapter 2. A48 UTT. A jar of hnms beer. The meaning of ih jnmt. It may be , related to ihm, "extinguish, annul" Faulkner guesses"reft", p.

It is not clear to whom sn refers, Ruulnitzky p. Raise it to your face. The raising of a lint bowl of bread. Here the raising of the mythical Eye to the face to restore it?

This spell is unusualin having a direction as well as an offering. See Schott p. The king, who is described as someonewhose akh-form is on the move z w , is told to look up and to look lively by the imperatives uw31 and spd.

This washing was a preliminary to the opening of. The results of this are that the king can summon for dwi. Another possibility is that the king can now take his bread by means of the Eye, referring back to its role in the opening of the mouth.

A51 UTT. A Ins loaf. This is the start of the Ni, meal. The sdmw. The suggestions for the meaning of this verb include the following: Faulkner p.

A52 UTT. A swt -joint. See Faulkner p. This seems to be an explicit statement of the symbolism between the Eye and the offering. The meat offered to the deceasedis the representative of the Eye of Horus presented to Osiris.

These implications are discussedin Chapter 1. Utts Perri 11inserts these shells into the Type A offerin list at this point. It could well be some kind of food as it occurs in a list of food offerings.

For the construction in to tw n y t Hr seealso Utts. A54 UTT. A55 UTT. Give me your hand so I may give it to you. A56 UTT. To be recited: Osiris-NN.

Take the Eye of Horus The active participle ndt may refer to the Eye or to any of the goddessesthat take a maternal, protective role towards the king.

This is part of a sequence of Utts. The references to the Eye of Horus are all restorations. The phrases with nhh are discussed in the appendix. A58 UTT.

The presentation of two eyes is also seen in Utt. The eyes are stressed as being of Horus' It body - the king is then told to join them to himself WB i, 53 has "vereinigen, sich gesellen" for iwa.

This is also termed as A and dnid, - emphatic sjm. This could be an adverb or Old Perfective agreeing with sit.

Possession of the eyes means guidance ssm and protection nj. Jacq p. A59 UTT. This can be compared with Utt.

Utts the TypeA offering list continues here with initial purifications followed by the Great Meal. The sequenceis preserved in W. A60 UTT. A61 UTT.

A62 UTT. A63 UTT. See Utts. A64 UTT. Protectlest he sufferson accountof it. WB 1,,2 has "leiden, ohnmächtig werden" for p3a sof refers to Horus who is threatened with damage to his Eye.

A65 UTT. There are many suggestionsfor the meaning of the verb tnif - Faulkner p. Do not causeit to hbnbn? WB ,63,14has a verb hbnbn hr "dein Boden rutschen von den Hofleuten vor dein König " from which Mercer b p.

Baines p. A67 UTT. A68 UTT. A69 UTT. See Verhoeven p. Compare also Utt. A71 UTT. A72 UTT. A73 UTT. A74 UTT. May you betakeyourself to it. This may be the same offering as Utt.

A75 UTT. A76 UTT. This compares with Utt. Otto d col. A77 UTT. A78 UTT. A79 UTT. Protect lest he suffers from it.

The subject of mn. A80 UTT. A81 UTT. It shall not be cut off from you. The phrase ns C w. A82 UTT. Compare Utts. The verb is i p is either gunimperative or possibly passive schn w.

Faulkner p has "perish" for zwarbut lie takes this as "squeezed out" p. See also Utts. Schott p. For im.

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